CHỨC NĂNG CỦA TỪ LOẠI
- Danh từ (nouns): danh thường được đặt ở những vị trí sau
- Chủ ngữ của câu (thường đứng đầu câu,sau trạng ngữ chỉ thời gian)
Ex: Maths is the subject I like best.
Yesterday Lan went home at midnight.
- Sau tính từ: my, your, our, their, his, her, its, good, beautiful….
Ex: She is a good teacher.
His father works in hospital.
- Làm tân ngữ, sau động từ
Ex: I like English.
We are students.
- Sau “enough”
Ex: He didn’t have enough money to buy that car.
- Sau các mạo từ a, an, the hoặc các từ this, that, these, those, each, every, both, no, some, any, few, a few, little, a little,…..(Lưu ý cấu trúc a/an/the + adj + noun)
Ex: This book is an interesting book.
- Sau giới từ: in, on, of, with, under, about, at……
Ex: Thanh is good at literature.
- Tính từ (adjectives): Tính từ thường đứng ở các vị trí sau
- Trước danh từ: Adj + N
Ex: My Tam is a famous singer.
- Sau động từ liên kết: tobe/seem/appear/feel/taste/look/keep/get + adj
Ex: She is beautiful
Tom seems tired now.
Chú ý: cấu trúc keep/make + O + adj
Ex: He makes me happy
- Sau “ too”: S + tobe/seem/look….+ too +adj…
Ex: He is too short to play basketball.
- Trước “enough”: S + tobe + adj + enough…
Ex: She is tall enough to play volleyball.
- Trong cấu trúc so…that: tobe/seem/look/feel…..+ so + adj + that
Ex: The weather was so bad that we decided to stay at home
- Tính từ còn được dùng dưới các dạng so sánh( lưu ý tính từ dài hay đứng sau more, the most, less, as….as)
Ex: Meat is more expensive than fish.
Huyen is the most intelligent student in my class.
- Tính từ trong câu cảm thán: How +adj + S + V
What + (a/an) + adj + N
III. Trạng từ (adverbs): Trạng từ thường đứng ở các vị trí sau
- Trước động từ thường(nhất là các trạng từ chỉ tàn suất: often, always, usually, seldom….)
Ex: They often get up at 6am.
- Giữa trợ động từ và động từ thường
Ex: I have recently finished my homework.
TĐT adv V
- Sau đông từ tobe/seem/look…và trước tính từ: tobe/feel/look… + adv + adj
Ex: She is very nice.
- Sau “too”: V(thường) + too + adv
Ex: The teacher speaks too quickly.
- Trước “enough” : V(thường) + adv + enough
Ex: The teacher speaks slowly enough for us to understand.
- Trong cấu trúc so….that: V(thường) + so + adv + that
Ex: Jack drove so fast that he caused an accident.
- Đứng cuối câu
Ex: The doctor told me to breathe in slowly.
- Trạng từ cũng thường đứng một mình ở đầu câu,hoặc giữa câu và cách các thành phần khác của câu bằng dấu phẩy(,)
Ex: Last summer I came back my home country
My parents had gone to bed when I got home.
It’s raining hard. Tom, however, goes to school.
- Động từ (verbs): Vị trí của động từ trong câu rất dễ nhận biết vì nó thường đứng sau chủ ngữ (Nhớ cẩn thận với câu có nhiều mệnh đề).
Ex: My family has five people.
I believe her because she always tells the truth.
S V S V
Chú ý: Khi dùng động từ nhớ lưu ý thì của nó để chia cho đúng.
CÁCH NHẬN BIẾT TỪ LOẠI
- Danh từ (nouns): danh từ thường kết thúc bằng: -tion/-ation, -ment, -er, -or, -ant, -ing, -age, -ship, -ism, -ity, -ness
Ex: distribution, information, development, teacher, actor, accountant, teaching, studying, teenage, friendship, relationship, shoolarship, socialism, ability, sadness, happiness………..
- Tính từ (adjective): Tính từ thường kết thúc bằng: -ful, -less, -ly, -al, -ble, -ive, -ous, -ish, -y, -like, -ic, -ed, -ing
Ex: helful, beautiful, useful, homeless, childless, friendly, yearly, daily, national, international, acceptable, impossible, active, passive, attractive, famous, serious, dangerous, childish, selfish, foolish, rainy, cloudy, snowy, sandy, foggy, healthy, sympathy, childlike, specific, scientific, interested, bored, tired, interesting, boring
III. Trạng từ (adverbs): Trạng từ thường được thành lập bằng cách thêm đuôi “ly” vào tính từ
Ex: beautifully, usefully, carefully, strongly, badly
Lưu ý: Một số trạng từ đặc biệt cần ghi nhớ
Adj Ú Adv
- John cannot make a _______ to get married to Mary or stay single until he can afford a house and a car.
- decide decision c. decisive d. Decisively
- She often drives very ________ so she rarely causes accident .
- carefully careful c. caring d. Careless
- All Sue’s friends and __________ came to her party .
- relations b. Relatives c. relationship d. Related
- My father studies about life and structure of plants and animals. He is a ……….
- biology b. biologist c. biological d. biologically
- She takes the …….. for running the household.
- responsibility b. responsible c. responsibly d. responsiveness.
- We are a very close-nit family and very ….. of one another.
- supporting b. supportive c. support d. supporter
- You are old enough to take _______ for what you have done.
- responsible b. responsibility
c. responsibly d. irresponsible
- He has been very interested in doing research on _______ since he was at high school.
- biology b. biological c. biologist d. biologically
- Although they are twins, they have almost the same appearance but they are seldom in __.
- agree agreeable c. agreement d. Agreeably
- The more _______ and positive you look, the better you will feel.
- confide b. confident c. confidently d. Confidence
- My parents will have celebrated 30 years of _______ by next week.
- marry b. married c. marriageable d. marriage
- London is home to people of many _______ cultures.
- diverse b. diversity c. diversify d. diversification
- Some people are concerned with physical ______ when choosing a wife or husband.
- attractive b. attraction c.attractiveness d.attractively
- Mrs. Pike was so angry that she made a _______ gesture at the driver.
- rude b. rudeness c. rudely d. rudest
- She sent me a _______ letter thanking me for my invitation.
- polite b. politely c. politeness d. impoliteness
- He is unhappy because of his ————–.
a. deaf b. deafen c. deafness d. Deafened
- His country has ————– climate.
- continent b. continental c. continence d. Continentally
- She has a ————– for pink.
- prefer b. preferential c. preferentially d. Preference
- Computers are ————– used in schools and universities.
a. widely b. wide c. widen d. Width
- I sometimes do not feel ————– when I am at a party.
a. comfort b. comfortable c. comforted d. Comfortably
- English is the language of ————–.
a. communicative b. communication
c. communicate d. communicatively
- I have to do this job because I have no ————–.
a. choose b. choice c. choosing d. Chosen
- English is used by pilots to ask for landing ————– in Cairo.
a. instruct b. instructors c. instructions d. Instructive
- He did some odd jobs at home ————–.
a. disappointment b. disappoint c. disappointed d. Disappointedly
- Don’t be afraid. This snake is ————–.
a. harm b. harmful c. harmless d. Unharmed
- During his ————–, his family lived in the United State.
a. child b. childhood c. childish d. Childlike
- Jack London wrote several ————– novels on adventure.
a. interest b. interestedly c. interesting d. interested
- He failed the final exam because he didn’t make any ————– for it.
a. prepare b. preparation c. preparing d. Prepared
- The custom was said to be a matter of ————–.
a. convenient b. convenience c. conveniently d. Convene
- She is ————– in her book.
a. absorbed b. absorbent c. absorptive d. Absorb
- As she is so ————– with her present job, she has decided to leave.
a. satisfy b. satisfied c. satisfying d. unsatisfied